ansible小结(六)Ad-hoc与commands模块

Ad-Hoc 是指ansible下临时执行的一条命令,并且不需要保存的命令,对于复杂的命令后面会说playbook。讲到Ad-hoc 就要提到模块,所有的命令执行都要依赖于事先写好的模块,默认安装好的ansible 里面已经自带了很多模块,如:command、raw、shell、file、cron等,具体可以通过ansible-doc -l 进行查看 。

一、Ad-hoc

1、直接执行

这里还是先来一个上几篇幅经常用到的一个例子:

  1. [root@361way ~]# ansible 10.212.52.252 -a ‘uptime’ -k
  2. SSH password:
  3. 10.212.52.252 | success | rc=0 >>
  4. 10:10am up 27 days 19:33, 2 users, load average: 0.39, 0.34, 0.33

一个ad-hoc命令的执行,需要按以下格式进行执行:

  1. ansible 主机或组 m 模块名 a ‘模块参数’ ansible参数
  • 主机和组,是在/etc/ansible/hosts 里进行指定的部分,当然动态Inventory 使用的是脚本从外部应用里获取的主机,这部分具体可以参考ansible小结(五)Dynamic Inventory
  • 模块名,可以通过ansible-doc -l 查看目前安装的模块,默认不指定时,使用的是command模块,具体可以查看/etc/ansible/ansible.cfg 的“#module_name = command ” 部分,默认模块可以在该配置文件中进行修改;
  • 模块参数,可以通过 “ansible-doc 模块名” 查看具体的用法及后面的参数;
  • ansible参数,可以通过ansible命令的帮忙信息里查看到,这里有很多参数可以供选择,如是否需要输入密码、是否sudo等。

2、后台执行

当命令执行时间比较长时,也可以放到后台执行,这里会用到-B、-P参数,如下:

  1. ansible all B 3600 a “/usr/bin/long_running_operation –do-stuff” \\后台执行命令 3600s,-B 表示后台执行的时间
  2. ansible all m async_status a “jid=123456789” \\检查任务的状态
  3. ansible all B 1800 P 60 a “/usr/bin/long_running_operation –do-stuff” \\后台执行命令最大时间是 1800s 30 分钟,-P 60s 检查下状态默认 15s

示例如下:

  1. [root@361way ~]# ansible 10.212.52.252 -B 3600 -P 0 -a ‘watch ls’
  2. background launch
  3. 10.212.52.252 | success >> {
  4. “ansible_job_id”: “411650646689.13501”,
  5. “results_file”: “/root/.ansible_async/411650646689.13501”,
  6. “started”: 1
  7. }
  8. [root@361way ~]# ansible 10.212.52.252 -m async_status -a ‘jid=411650646689.13501’
  9. 10.212.52.252 | success >> {
  10. “ansible_job_id”: “411650646689.13501”,
  11. “changed”: false,
  12. “finished”: 0,
  13. “results_file”: “/root/.ansible_async/411650646689.13501”,
  14. “started”: 1
  15. }

不指定-P或-P参数为非0时,该任务就会按-P直接的参数一直刷新下去,直到超出-B参数指定的时间或命令执行完成:

  1. [root@361way ~]# ansible 10.212.52.252 -B 3600 -a ‘watch ls’
  2. background launch
  3. 10.212.52.252 | success >> {
  4. “ansible_job_id”: “397200656414.15008”,
  5. “results_file”: “/root/.ansible_async/397200656414.15008”,
  6. “started”: 1
  7. }
  8. 10.212.52.252 | success >> {
  9. “ansible_job_id”: “397200656414.15008”,
  10. “changed”: false,
  11. “finished”: 0,
  12. “results_file”: “/root/.ansible_async/397200656414.15008”,
  13. “started”: 1
  14. }
  15. <job 397200656414.15008> polling on 10.212.52.252, 3585s remaining
  16. …………………………………………略

二、commands模块

上面已经提到,ansbile自身已经自带了很多模块,可以通过ansible-doc -l 进行查看。这里就结合command、shell、raw、script模块了解下其用法。

上面四个模块都属于commands 类

  • command模块,该模块通过-a跟上要执行的命令可以直接执行,不过命令里如果有带有如下字符部分则执行不成功 “ so variables like $HOME and operations like “<“, “>”, “|”, and “&” will not work (use the shell module if you need these features).”;
  • shell 模块,用法其本和command一样,不过的是其是通过/bin/sh进行执行,所以shell 模块可以执行任何命令,就像在本机执行一样,“ It is almost exactly like the command module but runs the command through a shell (/bin/sh) on the remote node.”;
  • raw模块,用法和shell 模块一样 ,其也可以执行任意命令,就像在本机执行一样,“Executes a low-down and dirty SSH command, not going through the module subsystem. There is no change handler support for this module. This module does not require python on the remote system”
  • script模块,其是将管理端的shell 在被管理主机上执行,其原理是先将shell 复制到远程主机,再在远程主机上执行,原理类似于raw模块,“This module does not require python on the remote system, much like the raw module.” 。

注:raw模块和comand、shell 模块不同的是其没有chdir、creates、removes参数,chdir参数的作用就是先切到chdir指定的目录后,再执行后面的命令,这在后面很多模块里都会有该参数 。

command模块包含如下选项:

  • creates:一个文件名,当该文件存在,则该命令不执行
  • free_form:要执行的linux指令
  • chdir:在执行指令之前,先切换到该指定的目录
  • removes:一个文件名,当该文件不存在,则该选项不执行
  • executable:切换shell来执行指令,该执行路径必须是一个绝对路径

command模块、raw模块、shell模块示例:

  1. [root@361way ~]# ansible 10.212.52.252 -m command -a ‘ps auxf|grep snmp’
  2. 10.212.52.252 | FAILED | rc=1 >>
  3. ERROR: Unsupported option (BSD syntax)
  4. ********* simple selection ********* ********* selection by list *********
  5. A all processes C by command name
  6. N negate selection G by real group ID (supports names)
  7. a all w/ tty except session leaders U by real user ID (supports names)
  8. d all except session leaders g by session OR by effective group name
  9. e all processes p by process ID
  10. T all processes on this terminal s processes in the sessions given
  11. a all w/ tty, including other users t by tty
  12. g OBSOLETE DO NOT USE u by effective user ID (supports names)
  13. r only running processes U processes for specified users
  14. x processes w/o controlling ttys t by tty
  15. *********** output format ********** *********** long options ***********
  16. o,o userdefined f full Group User pid cols ppid
  17. j,j job control s signal group user sid rows info
  18. O,O preloaded o v virtual memory cumulative format deselect
  19. l,l long u useroriented sort tty forest version
  20. F extra full X registers heading noheading context
  21. ********* misc options *********
  22. V,V show version L list format codes f ASCII art forest
  23. m,m,-L,-T,H threads S children in sum y change l format
  24. M,Z security data c true command name c scheduling class
  25. w,w wide output n numeric WCHAN,UID H process hierarchy
  26. [root@361way ~]# ansible 10.212.52.252 -m raw -a ‘ps auxf|grep snmp’
  27. 10.212.52.252 | success | rc=0 >>
  28. root 5580 25.0 0.0 12876 1792 pts/2 Ss+ 12:36 0:00 \_ bash c ps auxf|grep snmp
  29. root 5607 0.0 0.0 5720 832 pts/2 S+ 12:36 0:00 \_ grep snmp
  30. root 24364 0.0 0.0 70416 6696 ? SNl May15 0:22 /usr/sbin/snmpd r A LF i /var/log/netsnmpd.log p /var/run/snmpd.pid
  31. [root@361way ~]# ansible 10.212.52.252 -m shell -a ‘ps auxf|grep snmp’
  32. 10.212.52.252 | success | rc=0 >>
  33. root 5803 0.0 0.0 11308 1308 pts/2 S+ 12:36 0:00 \_ /bin/sh c ps auxf|grep snmp
  34. root 5805 0.0 0.0 4260 572 pts/2 S+ 12:36 0:00 \_ grep snmp
  35. root 24364 0.0 0.0 70416 6696 ? SNl May15 0:22 /usr/sbin/snmpd r A LF i /var/log/netsnmpd.log p /var/run/snmpd.pid

上面的执行结果可以看到,我这里加了管道,command模块执行时出错,而使用raw模块和shell 模块都正常。

使用chdir的示例:

  1. [root@361way ~]# ansible 10.212.52.252 -m command -a ‘chdir=/tmp/361way touch test.file’
  2. 10.212.52.252 | success | rc=0 >>
  3. [root@361way ~]# ansible 10.212.52.252 -m shell -a ‘chdir=/tmp/361way touch test2.file’
  4. 10.212.52.252 | success | rc=0 >>
  5. [root@361way ~]# ansible 10.212.52.252 -m raw -a ‘chdir=/tmp/361way touch test3.file’
  6. 10.212.52.252 | success | rc=0 >>

从上面执行结果来看,三个命令都执行成功了。不过通过在远程主机上查看,前两个文件被成功创建:

  1. linuxwdh1:/tmp/361way # ls /tmp/361way
  2. test.file test2.file

使用raw模块的执行的结果文件也被正常创建了,不过不是在chdir 指定的目录,而是在当前执行用户的家目录。

  1. linuxwdh1:~ # ls ~/test3.file
  2. /root/test3.file

creates与removes示例:

这里我在测试主机上创建/tmp/361way/server.txt文件,执行结果如下:

  1. [root@361way ~]# ansible 10.212.52.252 -a ‘creates=/tmp/361way/server.txt uptime’
  2. 10.212.52.252 | success | rc=0 >>
  3. skipped, since /tmp/361way/server.txt exists
  4. [root@361way ~]# ansible 10.212.52.252 -a ‘removes=/tmp/361way/server.txt uptime’
  5. 10.212.52.252 | success | rc=0 >>
  6. 15:11pm up 28 days 0:34, 2 users, load average: 0.75, 0.46, 0.39

script模块示例:

  1. [root@361way ~]# cat script.sh
  2. #!/bin/bash
  3. df hl
  4. ifconfig
  5. ps auxf|grep snmp
  6. [root@361way ~]# ansible 10.212.52.252 -m script -a ‘scrip.sh’
  7. 10.212.52.252 | FAILED => file or module does not exist: /root/scrip.sh
  8. [root@361way ~]# ansible 10.212.52.252 -m script -a ‘script.sh’
  9. 10.212.52.252 | success >> {
  10. “changed”: true,
  11. “rc”: 0,
  12. “stderr”: “OpenSSH_5.3p1, OpenSSL 1.0.1e-fips 11 Feb 2013\ndebug1: Reading configuration data /etc/ssh/ssh_config\r\ndebug1: Applying options for *\r\ndebug1: auto-mux: Trying existing master\r\nControl socket connect(/root/.ansible/cp/ansible-ssh-10.212.52.252-22-root): Connection refused\r\ndebug1: Connecting to 10.212.52.252 [10.212.52.252] port 22.\r\ndebug1: fd 3 clearing O_NONBLOCK\r\ndebug1: Connection established.\r\ndebug1: permanently_set_uid: 0/0\r\ndebug1: identity file /root/.ssh/identity type -1\r\ndebug1: identity file /root/.ssh/identity-cert type -1\r\ndebug1: identity file /root/.ssh/id_rsa type -1\r\ndebug1: identity file /root/.ssh/id_rsa-cert type -1\r\ndebug1: identity file /root/.ssh/id_dsa type -1\r\ndebug1: identity file /root/.ssh/id_dsa-cert type -1\r\ndebug1: identity file /root/.ssh/id_ecdsa type -1\r\ndebug1: identity file /root/.ssh/id_ecdsa-cert type -1\r\ndebug1: Remote protocol version 2.0, remote software version OpenSSH_6.2\r\ndebug1: match: OpenSSH_6.2 pat OpenSSH*\r\ndebug1: Enabling compatibility mode for protocol 2.0\r\ndebug1: Local version string SSH-2.0-OpenSSH_5.3\r\ndebug1: SSH2_MSG_KEXINIT sent\r\ndebug1: SSH2_MSG_KEXINIT received\r\ndebug1: kex: server->client aes128-ctr hmac-md5 zlib@openssh.com\r\ndebug1: kex: client->server aes128-ctr hmac-md5 zlib@openssh.com\r\ndebug1: SSH2_MSG_KEX_DH_GEX_REQUEST(1024<1024<8192) sent\r\ndebug1: expecting SSH2_MSG_KEX_DH_GEX_GROUP\r\ndebug1: SSH2_MSG_KEX_DH_GEX_INIT sent\r\ndebug1: expecting SSH2_MSG_KEX_DH_GEX_REPLY\r\ndebug1: Host ‘10.212.52.252’ is known and matches the RSA host key.\r\ndebug1: Found key in /root/.ssh/known_hosts:1\r\ndebug1: ssh_rsa_verify: signature correct\r\ndebug1: SSH2_MSG_NEWKEYS sent\r\ndebug1: expecting SSH2_MSG_NEWKEYS\r\ndebug1: SSH2_MSG_NEWKEYS received\r\ndebug1: SSH2_MSG_SERVICE_REQUEST sent\r\ndebug1: SSH2_MSG_SERVICE_ACCEPT received\r\ndebug1: Authentications that can continue: publickey,password,keyboard-interactive\r\ndebug1: Next authentication method: keyboard-interactive\r\ndebug1: Enabling compression at level 6.\r\ndebug1: Authentication succeeded (keyboard-interactive).\r\ndebug1: setting up multiplex master socket\r\nControlSocket /root/.ansible/cp/ansible-ssh-10.212.52.252-22-root already exists, disabling multiplexing\r\ndebug1: channel 0: new [client-session]\r\ndebug1: Requesting no-more-sessions@openssh.com\r\ndebug1: Entering interactive session.\r\ndebug1: Sending environment.\r\ndebug1: Sending env LANG = en_US.UTF-8\r\ndebug1: Sending command: LANG=C LC_CTYPE=C /root/.ansible/tmp/ansible-tmp-1431924855.88-242473611260231/script.sh \r\ndebug1: client_input_channel_req: channel 0 rtype exit-status reply 0\r\ndebug1: client_input_channel_req: channel 0 rtype eow@openssh.com reply 0\r\ndebug1: channel 0: free: client-session, nchannels 1\r\ndebug1: fd 1 clearing O_NONBLOCK\r\ndebug1: fd 2 clearing O_NONBLOCK\r\nConnection to 10.212.52.252 closed.\r\nTransferred: sent 1928, received 3920 bytes, in 0.1 seconds\r\nBytes per second: sent 37017.0, received 75262.7\r\ndebug1: Exit status 0\r\ndebug1: compress outgoing: raw data 537, compressed 375, factor 0.70\r\ndebug1: compress incoming: raw data 1837, compressed 1019, factor 0.55\r\n”,
  13. “stdout”: “Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on\r\n/dev/sda2 9.9G 872M 8.5G 10% /\r\nudev 3.9G 128K 3.9G 1% /dev\r\ntmpfs 3.9G 76K 3.9G 1% /dev/shm\r\n/dev/sda3 5.0G 219M 4.5G 5% /boot\r\n/dev/sda8 40G 15G 23G 40% /home\r\n/dev/sda9 9.9G 5.2G 4.3G 55% /opt\r\n/dev/sda6 5.0G 2.7G 2.1G 57% /tmp\r\n/dev/sda5 9.9G 3.4G 6.0G 36% /usr\r\n/dev/sda7 9.9G 823M 8.6G 9% /var\r\neth0 Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:50:56:A8:65:7E \r\n inet addr:10.212.52.252 Bcast:10.212.52.255 Mask:255.255.255.0\r\n inet6 addr: fe80::250:56ff:fea8:657e/64 Scope:Link\r\n UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1\r\n RX packets:24112135 errors:0 dropped:792372 overruns:0 frame:0\r\n TX packets:10697339 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0\r\n collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000 \r\n RX bytes:17137233328 (16343.3 Mb) TX bytes:13390377826 (12770.0 Mb)\r\n\r\nlo Link encap:Local Loopback \r\n inet addr:127.0.0.1 Mask:255.0.0.0\r\n inet6 addr: ::1/128 Scope:Host\r\n UP LOOPBACK RUNNING MTU:16436 Metric:1\r\n RX packets:3407332 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0\r\n TX packets:3407332 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0\r\n collisions:0 txqueuelen:0 \r\n RX bytes:262675450 (250.5 Mb) TX bytes:262675450 (250.5 Mb)\r\n\r\nroot 25332 0.0 0.0 4260 568 pts/2 S+ 12:54 0:00 \\_ grep snmp\r\nroot 24364 0.0 0.0 70416 6696 ? SNl May15 0:22 /usr/sbin/snmpd -r -A -LF i /var/log/net-snmpd.log -p /var/run/snmpd.pid\r\n”
  14. }

输出结果很多,看起来也很乱,不过查下stdout部分,这个部分是实际上执行后的结果。这里可以配合管道一起使用,可以如下使用:

  1. [root@361way ~]# ansible 10.212.52.252 -m script -a ‘script.sh’ |egrep ‘>>|stdout’

篇幅所限,本来想把常用模块都放在该篇来写,感觉太冗长,后面再单独分开相应的篇幅做模块的介绍。

Leave a Reply

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.